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Objectives: To determine the frequency of risk factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis in patients presenting at Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar.
Materials and methods: Patients of either gender, aged between 18 and 60 years, with either type I or type II diabetes mellitus presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis with the duration of diabetes > 1 year were included in the study. DKA was diagnosed based on the clinical presentation of respective patients, serum Random Blood Sugar (RBS), and urinary ketones. Careful scrutinization was done for the detection of common risk factors for DKA like infections, stroke, myocardial infarction, and pancreatitis. Based on the clinical examination for Stroke and acute pancreatitis, CT imaging of the brain and CT of the abdomen with pancreatic protocol were performed.
Results: Among 111 DKA patients, the mean age was 43 years with standard deviation ± 12.05. 63(57%) patients were male while 48(43%) were female. Infection was found in 54(49%) patients, stroke in 4(4%) myocardial infarctions in 3(3%), and pancreatitis was found in 7(6%) patients.
Conclusion: The most common risk factor for diabetic ketoacidosis is infections in half of the participants while stroke was 4%, myocardial infarction was 3% and pancreatitis was 6%.
KEYWORDS: diabetic ketoacidosis; type I diabetes; type II diabetes
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