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Objectives: To determine the relationship of different stages of diabetic retinopathy with the vascular endothelial
growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and leptin in the serum and vitreous fluid of type 2 diabetic patients.
Material and Methods: In this cross sectional analytical study carried out during 2010-2011 in Al-Shifa Trust Eye
Hospital, Rawalpindi and three tertiary hospital of Peshawar, 86 adult type 2 diabetic patients with different grades of
retinopathy (no retinopathy, non-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy) and 40 non-diabetic non-retinopathic
subjects of both sexes were recruited and evaluated for serum and vitreous levels of VEGF, IL-6 and leptin.
Results: Serum VEGF, IL-6 and leptin concentrations and vitreous levels of VEGF and IL-6 were significantly and
progressively greater in all grades of retinopathy as compared to normal controls. Females had comparatively more
concentration of this factor than males.
Conclusion: Significantly raised levels of VEGF and IL-6 in both serum and vitreous fluid and of leptin only in the
serum are found in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Knowledge about these levels may be a helpful tool to a
clinician in assessing the onset and progression of retinopathy for taking preventive and therapeutic measures.
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