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Objective: To evaluate the hematological and clinical features of Visceral and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
Materials and Methods: This was hospital-based retrospective study which included all cases of Cutaneous leishmaniasis and Visceral leishmaniasis that were diagnosed from Jan 2018 till December 2019 at Pathology Department, Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar. The diagnosed cases were analyzed for clinical and laboratory profile in details, results of CBC, demographic information and physical signs at presentation were noted as well as bone marrow aspirations were performed for LD bodies.
Results: Out of 104 cases, 36 (34.61%) visceral leishmaniasis and 68 (65.38%) cutaneous leishmaniasis were observed during the study period, in which 82 (78.85%) were male and 22 (21.15%) were females. Age range was from 03-40 years with mean of 23 + 4.21 years. Intermittent fever was observed in almost all the cases of visceral leishmaniasis and 52 (76.47%) of cutaneous leishmaniasis. All patients with visceral leishmaniasis had hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Patients with CL presented as lesions on face and foot region. In VL all patients were male, while in CL 46 were males and only 22 were females. Majority (83.33%) of patients in VL were children (age group 1-10 years), in cutaneous leishmaniasis 34 (50%) were in age group 31-40 years.
Conclusion: Our study concludes that leishmaniasis mainly affecting age group 10-20 years. Patients with visceral Leishmaniasis presented with pallor, weight loss fever and splenomegaly while those with cutaneous leishmaniasis presented with lesions on the foot and face especially nose. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were most common hematological parameters. It is essential that the Public Health authorities be more aware of the condition in order to improve environmental sanitation and personal protective measures and to establish diagnostic laboratories for early and correct diagnosis and treatment.
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