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Anum Khan
Mariam Saeedullah
Kiran Khan
Kamran Khan
Badar Qureshi


Objective: To know the outcome of Implant osseo integration in Smokers and non Smokers.
Material and Methods: This study was employed the observational research method, carried out at Islamic International
Dental College and Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. Several inclusion and exclusion criteria were established in order to
refine the results. The patients qualifying the inclusion criteria of missing/failing teeth, sufficient quality and quantity of
bone to support the implant were required to sign consent forms. Cases with documentation of uncontrolled metabolic
diseases, immunosuppressed status (post renal, liver, and bone marrow transplants), chemotherapy and head and
neck radiation, psychological disorders and patients on bisphosphonates medication were excluded from the research.
Results: In this study, 307 implants placed in 170 patients (92 females, 78 males). 301 implants were successfully
Osseo integrated while 6 failed. Out of the unsuccessful 6, 2 belonged to patients smoking more than 5 cigarettes a
day qualifying as smokers according to our inclusion criteria. 301 (98%) implants were successfully Osseo integrated
while 6 (2%) implants failed and had to be removed adding up to the total of 307 mentioned cases. Out of the 6 failed
implants (all observed during the early phase of Osseo integration) 2 belonged to tobacco smokers while 4 failed implants
were observed in non-smokers. Implant failure occurred in 3 females and 3 males equally, all being observed
in the posterior quadrants of maxilla and mandible (UL6, UL4, LR6, LR4, LR5, LR6).
Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is a significant risk factor for implant placement and may lead to failure of implant
osseo integration.

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