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Naila Hamid
Ghulam Jilliani
Nargis Parveen
Ihtesham ul Haq
Saatea Arif
Hamid Hussain


Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of several vascular risk factors. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases is
related to early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Little information is available about the prevalence of the metabolic
syndrome and its associated risk factors in Pakistan.
Material and Methods: A matched case control study included 150 adults patients diagnosed with acute myocardial
infarction and 150 healthy controls, aged 40 years and above. The patients were selected from Khyber Teaching
Hospital, Lady Reading Hospital and Hayatabad Medical Complex in Peshawar and controls were selected from the
general population. Metabolic syndrome and its relationship with associated risk factors such as obesity, physical
inactivity, smoking status, education and socioeconomic status were assessed.
Results: It was found that 55% of the patients had diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome compared to 17% of
controls. It was more common in age group 51-60 years. 66% of males and 34% of females had metabolic syndrome.
Obesity, physical inactivity and current smoking were associated risk factors with increased odds of metabolic
Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is more common in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Increased physical
activity and cessation of smoking may decrease the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

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How to Cite
Hamid, N., Jilliani, G., Parveen, N., ul Haq, I., Arif, S., & Hussain, H. (2010). METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS. Journal of Medical Sciences, 18(4), 186–190. Retrieved from

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