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Khansa Khan
Salman Zahir


Most people are unfamiliar with the concept of Artificial Intelligence. It is defined in several ways. Some regard it as the innovation that enables software systems to operate effectively and consider it as a tool that substitutes manual labor, in a timelier manner. Some consider it to be "a system" capable of correctly analyzing external data, mastering it, and implementing what it has learned to accomplish specific goals and tasks using flexible modification. In a nutshell, machine intelligence is human-designed intelligence. Artificial Intelligence has entered almost every aspect of our lives, and some of it, such as facial recognition or the Alexa-built gadgets retrieving information, which is so widespread in our daily lives that we have gotten accustomed to it, which may no longer be deemed Artificial Intelligence. We can identify two forms of AI based on the functions and skills it provides. The first sort of AI is intended to do a specific task, such as image and fingerprint recognition or automated cars. The second characteristic is a system's theoretical ability to grasp or master any intellectual work capable of assisting persons in solving the problem at hand. 1

There are always two sides to a picture: the brighter and the darker. Artificial Intelligence also has some of its adverse effects on the human race. With the developing technology, there are some drawbacks to it as well, such as an exceptional societal transition that will occur, and disturbing life patterns all over the globe. Individuals must be innovative to earn a living, but AI can easily develop an algorithm to execute our work. Also, it eliminates the necessity for people to communicate, to share views, because of which interpersonal contact is decreasing. Hence, AI will create a barrier between individuals because personal connections will be hardly required for interaction. Also, the machines would take over a large number of occupations. This would result in unemployment. Furthermore, a wealth imbalance will be established since AI investors will receive the majority of the earnings. The gap between the affluent and poor will widen. AI that has been educated to perform an assignment may ultimately reach a stage where humans no longer have power over it, resulting in unanticipated consequences. This signifies the AI's capacity to work autonomously after having been programmed according to the codes, ignoring human operator instructions or the creators of AI may design something that is racially biased to hurt specific individuals or objects. 2

On the other side, there are several beneficial impacts of AI on humans, especially in the sphere of healthcare. AI can help us make faster and more accurate decisions by uploading the findings of a physical examination to a system that evaluates all potential outcomes instantly and decides if the patient has any deficiencies or illnesses, and offers different treatment alternatives. Also, human error is unavoidable; the greater the degree of exhaustion, the greater will be the probability of mishaps and accidents. Modern technology, on the other hand, is insensitive to exhaustion and cognitive distraction. It prevents errors and enables you to complete the task more swiftly and correctly. In the modern world, patients have the option to select AI-based surgical treatments. Though this AI requires the supervision of medical professionals, it can perform the duty with minimal risk to the body. Recently, many radiologic operations have improved a lot with the help of AI. Diseases can be treated remotely via modern technology. The patients while staying in bed can be monitored by the doctors without attending using a remote monitoring robot. 3

Artificial Intelligence is being used in the pharmaceutical industry as it can assist with decision-making, rational drug design, determining the best medical care, including personalized medicines, and handling the clinical information generated and using it for drug development programs. 4 Artificial intelligence applications are being explored for a variety of ocular ailments, among the most prevalent of which are diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and glaucoma. Because of technological breakthroughs such as computerized visual field assessment and optical coherence tomography (OCT), the subject of ophthalmology is perfect for artificial intelligence investigations. 5 The effectiveness of using AI, particularly Machine Learning, in cardiology has also been shown in a variety of areas, including risk prediction of CAD along with cardiac scans, including electrocardiography and echocardiography. 6

Considering technological advancements and the digitization of dentistry, artificial intelligence is also spreading in dentistry. Neuronal networks in dentistry can be used to improve diagnosis precision, quickness, and effectiveness. Neural networks may aid in the detection of dental caries on radiological images, making the examination more rapid and accurate. Furthermore, dental restorations may be revealed using artificial intelligence. 7

There is a lot of expectation that AI will lead to significant improvements in all sectors of healthcare, from detection to therapy. The need for medical services is expanding, and many nations are facing a lack of medical practitioners. Technologies built on AI will be vital in assisting people in conserving their health by constant monitoring as well as providing earlier diagnoses, personalized treatments, and improved follow-ups. It also has shown promising results in the fields of precision medicine and genetics-based solutions.

It is believed that AI has a major role to play in future healthcare offers. Given the tremendous advancements in AI for imaging analysis, most medical imaging and histological data will almost certainly be reviewed by a computerized device at some time. Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms will not replace human clinicians on a big scale, but they will supplement existing efforts to provide care for patients. Physicians could eventually evolve in the direction of activities and duties that rely on essentially human characteristics like empathy and persuasion. Hence those medical practitioners, who choose not to cooperate with artificial intelligence, could end up being the sole individuals who lose their jobs gradually.


Article Details

How to Cite
Khan, K. ., & Zahir, S. . (2023). THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY- THE ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI). Journal of Medical Sciences, 31(4), 259–260. Retrieved from
Author Biographies

Khansa Khan, Northwest School of Medicine

Final Year MBBS

Salman Zahir, Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre

House Officer